The main negative consequence of malocclusion is the uneven distribution of the load on the teeth. Teeth that normally close take on all the chewing work, which is why they wear out and collapse faster. It is the incorrectly distributed load that causes caries, diseases and bleeding of the gums, mobility in the area involved in chewing teeth. Uneven load affects the temporomandibular joint – when moving, it moves unevenly, the articular head moves, which leads to pain, clicks, and “jamming”. With improper closure, the teeth are erased against each other or injure the mucosa. An incorrect bite not only leads to tooth loss, but also complicates their restoration: for implantation and crown, you need to create a place. In addition, an incorrect bite is usually accompanied by uneven, ugly dentition, which makes it difficult to feel confident.
Types of Bites
The teeth are closed in three planes: vertical (along the height of the dental crowns), sagittal (along the length of the dentition and jaws relative to each other), and transvezial (along the lateral ratio of teeth and jaws). Depending on the violation of the norm of closure in each plane, different types of occlusion are distinguished.
A distal bite is a violation of the closure of teeth in the sagittal plane, in which the upper jaw or dentition protrudes significantly relative to the lower. For a violation of occlusion in the sagittal plane (distal or mesial), the presence of a sagittal gap is characteristic – the distance between the upper and lower incisors. Common causes: early artificial feeding. Infants are born with a distal bite, and the lower jaw catches up with the upper jaw due to active work during feeding. Improper artificial feeding deprives the muscles of their natural stress and growth slows down. Typical consequences: TMJ dysfunction, tooth decay due to uneven loading.
With a mesial bite, the lower dentition, on the contrary, projects forward relative to the upper. It is characterized by (but not necessarily) reverse incisal overlap, that is, overlapping of the upper incisors with the lower ones. Mesial occlusion can be determined by a massive, protruding lower jaw, a sunken upper lip. Common causes: jaw growth abnormalities (heredity, diseases), supernumerary or very large teeth in the lower dentition. Typical consequences: TMJ dysfunction, aesthetic disturbances.
Violation of closure in the vertical plane, in which individual teeth or departments of the upper and lower jaws do not close together. Common causes: the habit of holding something in the mouth for a long time (nipple, pencil, finger), especially during tooth growth. Characteristic consequences: problems of the gastrointestinal tract due to inadequate chewing of food, destruction of the teeth that are involved in chewing.
Deep occlusion also refers to vertical closure. But unlike an open bite, it is characterized by a too low position of the front upper teeth, in which they cover the lower incisors by more than half or completely. Deep bite is often the result of distal. Common causes: mouth breathing, bad habits, long absence of lower teeth. Typical consequences: mucosal injury due to touching the teeth.
Such a bite can be determined by unnatural overlapping of the dentition in different departments: the upper teeth “hide” behind the lower ones or, conversely, completely overlap the lower ones in the lateral departments (where they should be closed by chewing surfaces). It happens that not a department, but one or two teeth can occupy the wrong position, this is called a cross ratio in the area of one tooth. Common causes: forced position when closing (when individual teeth interfere with the entire dentition to close normally) Typical consequences: tooth abrasion, TMJ dysfunction.
Treatment of different types of malocclusion
In modern orthodontics, the dental form of any type of malocclusion can be treated with orthodontic systems, such as braces and removable appliances (if the treatment is before a permanent bite), Depending on the type of abnormality and tooth features, there are limitations on the capabilities of orthodontic structures. For example, internal braces are not recommended for severe crowding, ligature for complex pathology, since the treatment for them is significantly longer.
Modern self-ligating Damon Q braces with a well-designed treatment plan even out any bite. To expedite the treatment, dentists recommend an individualized Insignia system – with it you can predict the outcome of the treatment and eliminate errors. If we are talking about skeletal forms of bite, then not all of them can be treated only with the help of orthodontic appliances. Sometimes, to adjust the size or position of the jaw, the cooperation of the orthodontist and the orthognathic surgeon is required. Our clinic collaborates with trusted specialists and draws up a joint treatment plan for patients with complex skeletal pathologies.